Tag Archives: Health and Physical education

Literacy and Numeracy Integration in Health and Physical Education

In the Australian Curriculum, the general capabilities encompass the knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that will assist students to live and work successfully in the twenty-first century.

There are seven general capabilities:

  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and communication technology capability
  • Critical and creative thinking
  • Personal and social capability
  • Ethical understanding
  • Intercultural understanding

I have touched on many of these general capabilities throughout this website, however I haven’t focused specifically on that of literacy and numeracy integration into physical education and health education from years seven to 10, as well as Physical Education studies and Health studies.

I completely agree that literacy and numeracy are two general capabilities that are critical to the success of students in the future for work aspirations and basic life skills, however I do not believe that they should take preference over educating students about the importance of health and physical activity during the time periods allotted for the latter. I believe a health and physical education teacher should use as many methods and teaching strategies as possible to integrate literacy and numeracy where possible into their teaching and learning programs, but not to the detriment of health and physical education and physical activity.

Literacy in health and physical education

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Developmental Stages, Student Diversity and the Importance of Feedback

All educational institutions, regardless of location or type will have students with varying rates of physical, social and emotional, intellectual ability, communication and speech development, who will have diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds. In almost all educational institutions, students will come from diverse backgrounds and have varied individual needs.  This diversity emerges from language, gender and religion, culture, learning styles, ability and disability, economic status, student interests and motivation. All of which will need to be taken into consideration by the teachers of today.

In relation to varying rates of physical, social and emotional, intellectual and communication and speech, many theories have been established over time relating to the development of these areas. For example, one of the prominent theorists in the area of psycho-social development is Eric Erikson, who believes that the ego of an individual develops as it successfully resolves crises that are distinctly social in nature. These involve establishing a sense of trust in others, developing a sense of identity in society, and helping the next generation prepare for the future. Erikson places emphasis on the adolescent period, noting that it is a crucial stage for developing a person’s identity.

Erikson’s graph of Developmental stages:

Approximate Age Virtues Psychosocial crisis Significant relationship Existential question Examples
0-2 years Hope Basic trust vs. mistrust Mother Can I trust the world? Feeding, abandonment
2–4 years Will Autonomy vs. shame and doubt Parents Is it okay to be me? Toilet training, clothing themselves
4–5 years Purpose Initiative vs. guilt Family Is it okay for me to do, move, and act? Exploring, using tools or making art
5–12 years Competence Industry vs. inferiority Neighbours, school Can I make it in the world of people and things? School, sports
13–19 years Fidelity Identity vs. role confusion Peers, role model Who am I? Who can I be? Social relationships
20–39 years Love Intimacy vs. isolation Friends, partners Can I love? Romantic relationships
40–64 years Care Generativity vs. stagnation Household, workmates Can I make my life count? Work, parenthood
65-death Wisdom Ego integrity vs. despair Mankind, my kind Is it okay to have been me? Reflection on life

Furthermore, the following document provides a good overview in relation to children’s development including principles of development stages, sequences of development, physical, emotional, social, intellectual, communication and speech development, maturation factors affecting growth and development and understanding how to observe these developments.

Understanding Children’s Development (PDF)

Being primarily involved in Physical education and health education, the physical development of individual students play a crucial part in which type of activities and skill progressions can be used for each age group. There will obviously be differences in development within a class and lessons will have to be adjusted to suit these needs. Giving every student multiple opportunities to respond individually within a lesson can not only increase skill progression and learning, but also confidence.

In relation to student diversity, all students are entitled to participate and learn about health and physical education including those with disabilities and those from diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA) is committed to developing a high-quality curriculum for all Australian students, one that promotes excellence and equity in education.

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ICT in Physical Education

The Australian Curriculum for Health and Physical Education from foundation year to year 10, enhances ICT learning by helping students to effectively and safely access online health and physical activity information and services to manage their own health and well-being. Students further develop their understanding of the role ICT plays in the lives and relationships of children and young people. Students will explore the nature of ICT and the implications for establishing and managing relationships in the twenty-first century. whilst developing an understanding of ethical online behaviour, including protocols and practices for using ICT for respectful communication. Students use ICT as key tools for communicating, collaborating, creating content, seeking help, accessing information and analysing performance in the Health and Physical Education field.

They use a range of ICT to analyse, measure and enhance movement performances and to access and critically evaluate health information, products and services. They also use ICT to develop personalised plans for nutrition and physical activity participation.

Due to the changes and ever increasing technological advances within the classroom, and outside the classroom for that matter, it is important for educators to remain in sync with these advancements in order to benefit the students they will be teaching.  Teachers of today will have to be very open minded and prepared for rapidly changing technologies, with the ability to understand a multimedia world.

With increased learning and understanding of new technologies and multiliteracies, educators will be able to enhance students learning and participation through the use of not just text, however, internet, new software and applications, videos, mobile technology and much more. Making lessons exciting and relevant to today’s ever changing technological world will enhance an educators pursuit in becoming an exemplary teacher, whilst facilitating a positive learning environment.

There are unlimited amounts of software, hardware, and online resources available to physical education teachers and other teachers alike.

These resources include but are not limited to:

  • A wide variety of smart phone applications
  • Webinars
  • Ecourses
  • Wiki’s
  • Online collaborative documents
  • Nintendo Wii
  • Sony eye toy
  • Social networking as a class
  • Interactive whiteboards

It’s interesting and ironic to note that technology was responsible for many students beginning to lead more sedentary lifestyles with television, computers and game consoles taking up much of their time and inevitably decreasing their physical activity. Today technology may have an opposite impact, as it may be responsible for some students becoming engaged and in turn active again. I do believe that there should be a mix of new technologies and traditional physical education, to keep all students engaged and interested.


Enhancing PE With Technology

Technology In The Classroom Today

Active Gaming Course

This article relates to the following Professional standards: 

  • 2.6
  • 3.4

Don’t take Australia for granted kids!

Occasionally students and even some adults can lose track and become so self involved they can forget how lucky they are to live in a country like Australia, with education opportunities, facilities and in general, the higher standard of living.

In relation to my epistemology once again, I want to TRY to educate students on not only Health and Physical education, however morals, life skills and world issues during the course of the year, wherever I may be teaching. Health and PE will always be the focus however, small videos, quotes or comments throughout the school year could (hopefully) alter a students thoughts, or expand their thinking beyond what they are doing tonight or on the weekend to something bigger, like world issues. Always trying to push students to extend themselves is something I aim to achieve. Behaviour management could also be combated by shocking students into realising that ‘their world’ isn’t the only thing that matters.


School Project Idea – How much do you know about world poverty and how much do you care? Sacrificing one thing a week to be able to relate in some sort of way to how someone across the other side of the world may be feeling. ‘Whenever you are feeling down, just remember how lucky you are, and keep your head up. You can always ask for help”

“Try sacrificing that one red bull, or that one bag of lollies and give that money to charity. If every student in Australia, Western Australia or even Perth did this even once, it (YOU) can make a difference. Give up that energy drink in Australia so a child younger than you in Africa can have one drink of water.”

Adult idea (18-30 year olds) Over the course of one month cut back on alcohol intake or a leisure activity and donate one quarter of the money saved to world vision or a similar charity.

“You couldn’t live without your apple iPhone, some children in Africa can’t even afford a real apple.” – Gary Corley